Development of coal combustion sensitivty tests for smoke detectors

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U.S. Dept. of the Interior, Bureau of Mines , [Washington, D.C.?]
Coal -- Combustion, Fire dete
Statementby John C. Edwards and Gerald S. Morrow
SeriesReport of investigations -- 9551, Report of investigations (United States. Bureau of Mines) -- 9551
ContributionsMorrow, G. S., United States. Bureau of Mines
The Physical Object
FormatMicroform
Pagination12 p.
ID Numbers
Open LibraryOL14984850M

Standard smoldering and flaming combustion tests using small coal samples have been developed by the U.S. Bureau of Mines as a method to evaluate the response of a smoke detector. The test provides a standard, easily reproducible smoke characteristic for coal smoldering and flaming combustion based upon a comparison of the smoke optical density.

Development of coal combustion sensitivity tests for smoke detectors. Published Date: "Standard smoldering and flaming combustion tests using small coal samples have been developed by the U.S. Bureau of Mines as a method to evaluate the response of a smoke detector. The test provides a standard, easily reproducible smoke characteristic Cited by: 6.

The test provides a standard, easily reproducible smoke characteristic for coal smoldering and flaming combustion based upon a comparison of the smoke optical density and the response of a standard ionization chamber to the smoke.

With these standard tests, the range of threshold limits for the response of a smoke detector and the detector's. sensitivity of individual smoke detectors; or C Calibrated instruments that provide the operation as described in CAN/ULC-S, Standard for Smoke Detectors for Fire Alarm Systems, for the purpose of testing smoke detector sensitivity.

Testing Evolution - CAN/ULC-S Each smoke detector sensitivity measurement and if. Testing Conventional Smoke Detectors for Sensitivity before Method 1 – Using a special meter designed to work with only specific detectors to measure a voltage or current level to determine sensitivity.

Method 2 – Using a Standard Multimeter connected directly to the detector or to an adapter. Method 3 – Using a special smoke box.

The Test Setup The high sensitivity aspirating smoke detector used for this test was AirSense Technology’s Stratos- Micra 25 ® smoke detection system. Development of coal combustion sensitivty tests for smoke detectors book facility for testing was PTS’ operational computer room and demo center.

The PTS computer room site is comprised of one (1) network. Smoke detector sensitivity must be checked within one year after installation, then checked every alternate year thereafter. After the second test, if test results indicate that the device remains within its listed and marked sensitivity range, the length of time between tests is permitted to be extended to a maximum of 5 years.

As well, since the annual sensitivity testing of smoke detectors started to be enforced as a result of the latest edition of the ULC S Annual Testing Standard being issued, the CFAA has received many requests relating to the availability of sensitivity testing meters.

The detectors comprised of eight domestic smoke alarm devices (four ionisations and four opticals) and four commercial smoke detectors (two ionisations and two opticals).

Details Development of coal combustion sensitivty tests for smoke detectors PDF

To define the end point of the tests, guidance was taken from the EN and EN standards, which specify end of test limits for smouldering and flaming fires that are m. Trutest combines functional and sensitivity testing in one convenient package by adding smoke aerosol to the detector’s sensing chamber.

Some detector sensitivity testers need to test the detector multiple times to get a reading on whether the detector has drifted in sensitivity. developed sensitivity tests for smoke detectors using smoldering light source and measures the amount of light transmitted without and flaming coal combustion (2).

scattering or absorption. Black smoke particulates are more. TPLELE OF CONTENTS Page 1. ABSTRACT 2, INTRODUCTION 3. CHMACTERISTICS OF COMBUSTION AEROSOLS 4.

MECWANISM OF SMOKE DETECTOR OPERATION PhotoelectrirType Detectors Ionization-Type Detectors Combined Ionization/Fhotoelectric Detectors The "OR" Detector Rze "AND" Detector 5. POSITIONING OF SMOKE DETECTORS IN RESIDENCES Location of Smoke Detector.

"Standard smoldering and flaming combustion tests using small coal samples have been developed by the U.S. Bureau of Mines as a method to evaluate the response of a smoke detector.

The test provides a standard, easily reproducible smoke characteristi. As part of an effort to develop objective smoke detector selection criteria, smoldering smoke and flammable liquid fire tests were performed on photoelectric, multicriteria (ion/heat/photo), and laser-photoelectric smoke detectors.

Results showed that, when evaluated at similar sensitivities, the laser-photoelectric and multicriteria detectors had response times close to those of the.

A smoke alarm was present and raised the alarm (i.e. functioned as desired) in 45% of dwelling fires in to but in only 33% of fire-related fatalities, highlighting the importance of.

During sensitivity testing, if a detector fails, it will need to be cleaned and retested. Cleaning smoke detectors should be left to your Life Safety Partner, as they will clean the smoke detector screen and chamber using a non-electrostatic vacuum specifically designed to prevent damage to the detector.

Six smoke detectors were measured with respect to visually obscuring smoke characterized by a corresponding optical density for smoldering and flaming coal combustion in the smoke chamber.

It was determined that for one type of ionization smoke detector the alarm time was nearly equivalent to that of an odor monitor's alarm for smoldering coal.

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EVALUATION OF SMOKE DETECTORS FOR USE IN UNDERGROUND MINES. Litton, NIOSH, Pittsburgh, PA. ABSTRACT Laboratory experiments were conducted to determine the responses of a prototype smoke detector and a commercially available photoelectric smoke detector to smoke particles generated from various combustion sources.

A study completed by NIST in reflected that smoke alarms were working but there was a reduction in the margin between available and safe egress times from an earlier study in Fires in either a flaming or a smoldering phase provide several cues for smoke alarms.

These 15 include smoke particulates, heat, and gas effluents (e.g., CO. smoke detector providing normal sensitivity Standard detection: general fire detection in normal rooms or spaces, giving for example, at least an equivalent level of detection as a point or beam type smoke detection system.

Passes test fires TF2, TF3, TF4 and TF5. *For the specific test fire performance parameters refer to the Annex of EN evaluating the sensitivity of the smoke detector: the sensitivity test and the fire test. The sensitivity test measures the sensitivity value of thp,mn\cp riptprt0r in ~ s m o k e teet box, and evaluates the repeatability after several reliability tests.

The fire test evaluates the ability offire detection by applying model fires in a fire test. Paul also suggested that the use of approved test gas (canned smoke), in some instances where multi-criteria type detectors are utilized, will require you to DISABLE the carbon monoxide sensing element in order to properly conduct a test of the smoke sensor.

In order to do this, you’ll need to be able to access the common control unit’s programming software. Smoke sensor is a measuring component and it is prone to losing its sensitivity.

Reduction of sensitivity occurs due to various reasons, therefore it is important to have smoke detectors calibrated periodically. We offer testing and calibration services for various brand smoke detector. If you want to test your smoke detector's sensitivity, check out any instructions you have from the manufacturer.

How to adjust a smoke detector's sensitivity. Adjusting the sensitivity of a smoke detector should be done with caution. The last thing you want is to inhibit the detector’s ability to detect traces of smoke.

Description Development of coal combustion sensitivty tests for smoke detectors FB2

Approved all over the world, our Solo smoke aerosols (used with the Solo / dispensers) deliver smoke particles to the detector under test replicating the conditions of smoke from a fire.

Our range of smoke aerosols has recently increased to allow continued use of our Solo / dispensers in full compliance with latest regulations. @article{osti_, title = {Detection of smoldering combustion of coal with an odor meter}, author = {Edwards, J C}, abstractNote = {A commercially available odor meter was evaluated as a detector of smoldering coal combustion, and compared with incipient carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) detection and a commercially available ionization-type smoke detector.

This paper presents the recent work on the analysis of dust, fog and steam properties for the development of test methods for determining the sensitivity of smoke detectors to non-fire aerosols.

This includes the knowledge of properties of nuisance aerosols, relevant rise rates of dust and steam concentration and thresholds. Advanced Search. Advanced Search. For each combustible source—douglas-fir wood, SBR belt, and Pittsburgh seam coal—four tests were performed in the smoke chamber, resulting in twelve combustion tests in total.

Table 1 summarizes each combustion test including mass of the combustible material, temperature and humidity in the smoke chamber, and air velocity flowing into the. Smog is a type of intense air pollution. The word "smog" was coined in the early 20th century, and is a contraction (portmanteau) of the words smoke and fog to refer to smoky fog due to its opacity, and odor.

The word was then intended to refer to what was sometimes known as pea soup fog, a familiar and serious problem in London from the 19th century to the midth century. (2) There were no differences in the results using different kinds of coal.

(3) Combustion d other materials can also be detected earlier by this system than by conventional detectors for gas and smoke. (4) Use of this detection system enables one to discern the source of the combustion gases, whether it be coal, wood, oil or rubber.

MQ is an air quality sensor for detecting a wide range of gases, including NH 3, NOx, alcohol, benzene, smoke and CO 2. Ideal for use in office or factory.

The MQ gas sensor has a high sensitivity to Ammonia, Sulfide and Benzene steam, also sensitive to smoke and other harmful gases.Photoelectric smoke detectors are better suited to detect slow smoldering fires that are characterised by particulates in to 10 micron range.

Fig. 3: Inside view of a light-scattering smoke detector. Ionisation smoke detectors. These use a small radioactive source as a key component for detection of smoke .